Surah Al Baqra Ayat No. 275 to 281
اَلَّذِيْنَ يَاْكُلُوْنَ الرِّبٰوا لَا يَقُوْمُوْنَ اِلَّا كَمَا يَقُوْمُ الَّذِيْ يَتَخَبَّطُهُ الشَّيْطٰنُ مِنَ الْمَسِّ ذٰلِكَ بِاَنَّھُمْ قَالُوْٓا اِنَّمَا الْبَيْعُ مِثْلُ الرِّبٰوا ۘ وَاَحَلَّ اللّٰهُ الْبَيْعَ وَحَرَّمَ الرِّبٰوا ۭ فَمَنْ جَاۗءَهٗ مَوْعِظَةٌ مِّنْ رَّبِّهٖ فَانْتَهٰى فَلَهٗ مَا سَلَفَ ۭ وَاَمْرُهٗٓ اِلَى اللّٰهِ ۭ وَمَنْ عَادَ فَاُولٰۗىِٕكَ اَصْحٰبُ النَّارِ ۚ ھُمْ فِيْهَا خٰلِدُوْنَ ٢٧٥
يَمْحَقُ اللّٰهُ الرِّبٰوا وَيُرْبِي الصَّدَقٰتِ ۭ وَاللّٰهُ لَا يُحِبُّ كُلَّ كَفَّارٍ اَثِيْمٍ ٢٧٦
اِنَّ الَّذِيْنَ اٰمَنُوْا وَعَمِلُوا الصّٰلِحٰتِ وَاَقَامُوا الصَّلٰوةَ وَاٰتَوُا الزَّكٰوةَ لَھُمْ اَجْرُھُمْ عِنْدَ رَبِّهِمْ ۚ وَلَا خَوْفٌ عَلَيْهِمْ وَلَا ھُمْ يَحْزَنُوْنَ ٢٧٧
يٰٓاَيُّهَا الَّذِيْنَ اٰمَنُوا اتَّقُوا اللّٰهَ وَذَرُوْا مَا بَقِيَ مِنَ الرِّبٰٓوا اِنْ كُنْتُمْ مُّؤْمِنِيْنَ ٢٧٨
َاِنْ لَّمْ تَفْعَلُوْا فَاْذَنُوْا بِحَرْبٍ مِّنَ اللّٰهِ وَرَسُوْلِهٖ ۚ وَاِنْ تُبْتُمْ فَلَكُمْ رُءُوْسُ اَمْوَالِكُمْ ۚ لَا تَظْلِمُوْنَ وَلَا تُظْلَمُوْنَ ٢٧٩
وَاِنْ كَانَ ذُوْ عُسْرَةٍ فَنَظِرَةٌ اِلٰى مَيْسَرَةٍ ۭ وَاَنْ تَصَدَّقُوْا خَيْرٌ لَّكُمْ اِنْ كُنْتُمْ تَعْلَمُوْنَ ٢٨٠
وَاتَّقُوْا يَوْمًا تُرْجَعُوْنَ فِيْهِ اِلَى اللّٰهِ ۼ ثُمَّ تُوَفّٰى كُلُّ نَفْسٍ مَّا كَسَبَتْ وَھُمْ لَا يُظْلَمُوْنَ ٢٨١ۧ
Those who eat Riba will not stand (on the Day of Resurrection) except like the standing of a person beaten by Shaytan leading him to insanity. That is because they say: “Trading is only like Riba,” whereas Allah has permitted trading and forbidden Riba. So whosoever receives an admonition from his Lord and stops eating Riba, shall not be punished for the past; his case is for Allah (to judge); but whoever returns (to Riba), such are the dwellers of the Fire ـ they will Abide therein.
Allah will destroy Riba and will give increase for Sadaqat. And Allah likes not the disbelievers, sinners.
Truly, those who believe, and do deeds of righteousness, and perform the Salah and give Zakah, they will have their reward with their Lord. On them shall be no fear, nor shall they grieve.
O you who believe! Have Taqwa of Allah and give up what remains from Riba, if you are (really) believers. And if you do not do it, then take a notice of war from Allah and His Messenger but if you repent, you shall have your capital sums. Deal not unjustly, and you shall not be dealt with unjustly.
And if the debtor is having a hard time, then grant him time till it is easy for him to repay; but if you remit it by way of charity, that is better for you if you did but know.
The Punishment for Dealing with Riba (Interest and Usury)
After Allah mentioned the righteous believers who give charity, pay Zakah and spend on their relatives and families at various times and conditions, He then mentioned those who deal in usury and illegally acquire people’s money, using various evil methods and wicked ways.
Allah describes the condition of these people when they are resurrected from their graves and brought back to life on the Day of Resurrection:
Those who eat Riba will not stand (on the Day of Resurrection) except like the standing of a person beaten by Shaytan leading him to insanity.
This Ayah means, on the Day of Resurrection, these people will get up from their graves just as the person afflicted by insanity or possessed by a demon would.
Ibn Abbas said,
“On the Day of Resurrection, those who consume Riba will be resurrected while insane and suffering from seizures.”
Ibn Abi Hatim also recorded this and then commented,
“This Tafsir was reported from Awf bin Malik, Sa`id bin Jubayr, As-Suddi, Ar-Rabi bin Anas, Qatadah and Muqatil bin Hayyan.”
Al-Bukhari recorded that Samurah bin Jundub said in the long Hadith about the dream that the Prophet had,
We reached a river –
the narrator said, “I thought he said that the river was as red as blood”-
and found that a man was swimming in the river, and on its bank there was another man standing with a large collection of stones next to him. The man in the river would swim, then come to the man who had collected the stones and open his mouth, and the other man would throw a stone in his mouth.
The explanation of this dream was that the person in the river was one who consumed Riba.
That is because they say: “Trading is only like Riba,” whereas Allah has permitted trading and forbidden Riba,
indicates that the disbelievers claimed that Riba was allowed due to the fact that they rejected Allah’s commandments, not that they equated Riba with regular trade.
The disbelievers did not recognize that Allah allowed trade in the Qur’an, for if they did, they
would have said, “Riba is trade.” Rather, they said, (Trading is only like Riba) meaning, they are similar, so why did Allah allow this, but did not allow that, they asked in defiance of Allah’s commandments.
Whereas Allah has permitted trading and forbidden Riba,
might be a continuation of the answer to the disbelievers’ claim, who uttered it, although they knew that Allah decided that ruling on trade is different from that of Riba.
Indeed, Allah is the Most Knowledgeable, Most Wise, Whose decision is never resisted. Allah is never asked about what He does, while they will be asked. He is knowledgeable of the true reality of all things and the benefits they carry. He knows what benefits His servants, so He allows it for them, and what harms them, so He forbids them from it. He is more merciful with them than the mother with her own infant.
Thereafter, Allah said, the Prophet did not require the return of the interest that they gained on their Riba during the time of Jahiliyyah. Rather, he pardoned the cases of Riba that occurred in the past, just as Allah said, (shall not be punished for the past; his case is for Allah (to judge). Sa`id bin Jubayr and As-Suddi said that, (shall not be punished for the past),
refers to the Riba one consumed before it was prohibited.
Allah then said,
But whoever returns, meaning, deals in Riba after gaining knowledge that Allah prohibited it, then that warrants punishment, and in this case, the proof will have been established against such person.
This is why Allah said,
such are the dwellers of the Fire ـ they will abide therein forever. Abu Dawud recorded that Jabir said, “When
(Those who eat Riba will not stand (on the Day of Resurrection) except like a person beaten by Shaytan leading him to insanity) was revealed, the Messenger of Allah said
Whoever does not refrain from Mukhabarah, then let him receive a notice of war from Allah and His Messenger.”
Al-Hakim also recorded this in his Mustadrak, and he said,
“It is Sahih according to the criteria of Muslim, and he did not record it.”
Mukhabarah (sharecropping), farming land in return for some of its produce, was prohibited.
Muzabanah, trading fresh dates still on trees with dried dates already on the ground, was prohibited.
Muhaqalah, which refers to trading produce not yet harvested, with crops already harvested, was also prohibited.
These were prohibited to eradicate the possibility that Riba might be involved, for the quality and equity of such items are only known after they become dry.
The subject of Riba is a difficult subject for many scholars. We should mention that the Leader of the Faithful, Umar bin Al-Khattab, said,
“I wished that the Messenger of Allah had made three matters clearer for us, so that we could refer to his decision: • the grandfather (regarding inheriting from his grandchildren), • the Kalalah (those who leave neither descendants nor ascendants as heirs) and • some types of Riba.”
Umar was referring to the types of transactions where it is not clear whether they involve Riba or not. The Shariah supports the rule that;
• for any matter that is unlawful, then the means to it are also unlawful, because whatever results in the unlawful is unlawful, in the same way that whenever an obligation will not be complete except with something, then that something is itself an obligation.
The Two Sahihs recorded that An-Nu`man bin Bashir said that he heard the Messenger of Allah say
Both lawful and unlawful things are evident, but in between them there are matters that are not clear. So whoever saves himself from these unclear matters, he saves his religion and his honor. And whoever indulges in these unclear matters, he will have fallen into the prohibitions, just like a shepherd who grazes (his animals) near a private pasture, at any moment he is liable to enter it.
The Sunan records that Al-Hasan bin Ali said that he heard the Messenger of Allah say, Leave that which makes you doubt for that which does not make you doubt.
Ahmad recorded that Sa`id bin Al-Musayyib said that Umar said,
“The Ayah about Riba was one of the last Ayat to be revealed, and the Messenger of Allah died before he explained it to us. So leave that which makes you doubt for that which does not make you doubt.”
Ibn Majah recorded that Abu Hurayrah said that the Messenger of Allah said,
Riba is seventy types, the least of which is equal to one having sexual intercourse with his mother.
Continuing on the subject of prohibiting the means that lead to the unlawful, there is a Hadith that Ahmad recorded in which Aishah said,
“When the Ayat in Surah Al-Baqarah about Riba were revealed, the Messenger of Allah went out to the Masjid and recited them and also prohibited trading in alcohol.”
The Six collections recorded this Hadith, with the exception of At-Tirmidhi.
The Two Sahihs recorded that the Messenger of Allah said
May Allah curse the Jews! Allah forbade them to eat animal fat, but they melted it and sold it, eating its price.
Ali and Ibn Mas`ud narrated that the Messenger of Allah said,
May Allah curse whoever consumes Riba, whoever pays Riba, the two who are witnesses to it, and the scribe who records it.
They say they only have witnesses and a scribe to write the Riba contract when they want it to appear to be a legitimate agreement, but it is still invalid because the ruling is applied to the agreement itself, not the form that it appears in. Verily, deeds are judged by their intentions.
Surah Aale Imran Ayat No. 130 and 131
ٰٓاَيُّھَا الَّذِيْنَ اٰمَنُوْا لَا تَاْ كُلُوا الرِّبٰٓوا اَضْعَافًا مُّضٰعَفَةً ۠ وَاتَّقُوا اللّٰهَ لَعَلَّكُمْ تُفْلِحُوْنَ ١٣٠ۚ
وَاتَّقُوا النَّارَ الَّتِىْٓ اُعِدَّتْ لِلْكٰفِرِيْنَ
O you who believe! Do not consume Riba doubled and multiplied, but fear Allah that you may be successful.
And fear the Fire, which is prepared for the disbelievers.
O you who believe! Do not consume Riba doubled and multiplied,
Allah prohibits His believing servants from dealing in Riba and from requiring interest on their capital, just as they used to do during the time of Jahiliyyah.
For instance, when the time to pay a loan comes, the creditor would say to the debtor, “Either pay now, or the loan will incur interest.” If the debtor asks for deferment of the loan, the creditor would require interest and this would occur year after year until the little capital becomes multiplied many times.
but fear Allah that you may be successful.
Allah commands His servants to have Taqwa of Him so that they may achieve success in this life and the Hereafter.
Allah also threatens them with the Fire and warns them against it, saying,
And fear the Fire, which is prepared for the disbelievers.
And obey Allah and the Messenger that you may obtain mercy.
Surah An-Nisaa Ayat No. 160 and 161
فَبِظُلْمٍ مِّنَ الَّذِيْنَ هَادُوْا حَرَّمْنَا عَلَيْهِمْ طَيِّبٰتٍ اُحِلَّتْ لَهُمْ وَبِصَدِّهِمْ عَنْ سَبِيْلِ اللّٰهِ كَثِيْرًا ١٦٠ۙ
وَّاَخْذِهِمُ الرِّبٰوا وَقَدْ نُھُوْا عَنْهُ وَاَ كْلِهِمْ اَمْوَالَ النَّاسِ بِالْبَاطِلِ ۭوَاَعْتَدْنَا لِلْكٰفِرِيْنَ مِنْهُمْ عَذَابًا اَلِـــيْمًا ١٦١
For the wrongdoing of the Jews, We made unlawful for them certain good foods which had been lawful for them ـ and for their hindering many from Allah’s way; And their taking of Riba though they were forbidden from taking it, and their devouring men’s substance wrongfully. And We have prepared for the disbelievers among them a painful torment.
Some Foods Were Made Unlawful for the Jews Because of their Injustice and Wrongdoing
For the wrongdoing of the Jews, We made unlawful for them certain good foods which had been lawful for them ـ and for their hindering many from Allah’s way;
Allah states that because of the injustice and transgression of the Jews, demonstrated by committing major sins, He prohibited some of the lawful, pure things which were previously allowed for them.
This prohibition could be only that of decree, meaning that Allah allowed the Jews to falsely interpret their Book and change and alter the information about what was allowed for them. They thus, out of exaggeration and extremism in the religion, prohibited some things for themselves.
It could also mean that in the Tawrah, Allah prohibited things that were allowed for them before.
Allah said, All food was lawful to the Children of Israel, except what Israil made unlawful for himself before the Tawrah was revealed.
We mentioned this Ayah before, which means that all types of food were allowed for the Children of Israel before the Tawrah was revealed, except the camel’s meat and milk that Israil prohibited for himself. Later, Allah prohibited many things in the Tawrah. Allah said in Surah Al-An`am (chapter 6), And unto those who are Jews, We forbade every (animal) with undivided hoof, and We forbade
them the fat of the ox and the sheep except what adheres to their backs or their entrails, or is mixed up with a bone. Thus We recompensed them for their rebellion. And verily, We are Truthful. (6:146)
This means, We prohibited these things for them because they deserved it due to their transgression, injustice, defying their Messenger and disputing with him.
So Allah said;
For the wrongdoing of the Jews, We made unlawful to them certain good foods which had been lawful to them, and for their hindering many from Allah’s way.
This Ayah states that they hindered themselves and others from following the truth, and this is the behavior that they brought from the past to the present.
This is why they were and still are the enemies of the Messengers, killing many of the Prophets. They also denied Muhammad and `Isa, peace be upon them.
And their taking of Riba though they were forbidden from taking it,
Allah prohibited them from taking Riba’, yet they did so using various kinds of tricks, ploys and cons, thus devouring people’s property unjustly. and their devouring men’s substance wrongfully. Allah said,
And We have prepared for the disbelievers among them a painful torment.
Allah then said,
But those among them who are well-grounded in knowledge…,
firm in the religion and full of beneficial knowledge.
We mentioned this subject when we explained Surah Al Imran.
The Ayah; and the believers…,
refers to the well-grounded in knowledge; believe in what has been sent down to you and what was sent down before you;
Surah Ar-room Ayat No. 39
وَمَآ اٰتَيْتُمْ مِّنْ رِّبًا لِّيَرْبُوَا۟ فِيْٓ اَمْوَالِ النَّاسِ فَلَا يَرْبُوْا عِنْدَ اللّٰهِ ۚ وَمَآ اٰتَيْتُمْ مِّنْ زَكٰوةٍ تُرِيْدُوْنَ وَجْهَ اللّٰهِ فَاُولٰۗىِٕكَ هُمُ الْمُضْعِفُوْنَ 39
And that which you give in Riba in order that it may increase from other people’s property, has no increase with Allah; but that which you give in Zakah seeking Allah’s Face, then those they shall have manifold increase.
And that which you give in Riba, in order that it may increase from other people’s property, has no increase with Allah;
This means, that which is given as a gift to others in the hope that they will give back more than they were given. There is no reward for this with Allah.
This is how this Ayah was interpreted by Ibn Abbas, Mujahid, Ad-Dahhak, Qatadah, Ikrimah, Muhammad bin Ka`b and Ash-Sha`bi.
Allah says: … but that which you give in Zakah seeking Allah’s Face, then those they shall have manifold increase.
Those are the ones for whom Allah will multiply the reward.
It was reported in the Sahih No person gives in charity the equivalent of a date which was earned in a lawful manner, but the Most Merciful takes it in His Right Hand and takes care of it for its owner, just as any one of you takes care of his foal or young camel, until the date becomes the size of Mount Uhud.